‘Brexit means Brexit’ is a slogan which was coined by Theresa May when she took on the role of leader of the Conservative party and subsequently Prime Minister of Great Britain. The sentence is a tautology in that semantically it does not add anything new to the common ground although it could have quite profound consequences for the country. I will be analysing how this sentence is interpreted in the coming weeks and months by Theresa May and her close advisors to see how politically the meaning and identity of a slogan such as this develops over time. The most recent interpretations are placed on top.
22nd Decmeber 2016
It has been a busy year for the newly coined phrase ‘Brexit means Brexit’. First used in July 2016 after the Brexit vote on the steps of Downing Street by Theresa May as she took up the British permiership, the phrase has served May well since then. It is little used these days however since it tends to be mocked in the media and the opposition.
David Davis said there were still “quite a few decisions to be made” with regard to the government plan (The Guardian)
6th December 2016
Theresa May has not used the soundbite ‘Brexit means Brexit’ very much recently. However she has coined another phrase: ‘a red, white and blue Brexit’ while speaking overseas. The Independent
26th October 2016
During PMQs, the PM was challenged by Jeremy Corbyn to expand on the meaning of ‘Brexit means Brexit’. Theresa May said she took it to mean that the government is listening to the people; that the slogan means Britain will leave the EU and that no one should be able to thwart that ambition. In other words, ‘Brexit’ can only mean one thing (leave the EU) and cannot mean something else short of this.
This suggests a pragmatic interpretation as shown below:
|‘Brexit means Brexit’||Semantic||Pragmatic force|
|Theresa May||tautology||listen to the people, don’t try and frustrate the popular mandate|
See the blog on the exchange for more details.
3rd October 2016
We have learnt more about Brexit in the past few days than we have in the last few months since the referendum. Two models of Brexit have emerged:
- Soft Brexit: in which Britain leaves the EU as a political body but retains membership of the European single market and accepts some form of free movement of people across its borders.
- Hard Brexit: in which Britain leaves the EU altogether (and the single market) and trades with European countries on WTO terms. Britain would have complete control of its borders.
Theresa May however has dismissed these two tems. She has indicated that Article 50 will be triggered some time next year and at least before the end of March 2017. She has also announced a ‘Great Repeal Bill’ which will mean that all current EU legislation which applies to the UK will be consolidated into UK law at the point of departure from the EU. Assuming Britain leaves around March 2019 this will mean no change in the law at that point. Governments of course will be free to ammend the law subsequently through normal parliamentary procedures. She also suggested that we will be outside the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice which implies Britain will leave the European single market althogther. In other words, a hard Brexit.
7th September 2016 – David Davis
After the summer recess, politicians returned to Westminster to try and make sense of the saying: “Brexit means Brexit”. David Davis, the Conservative Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union (an odd title methinks) made the first major speech in the House of Commons for the new government to try and shed some light on this.
“Naturally, people want to know what Brexit will mean. Simply, it means leaving the European Union” (David Davis, Hansard, 5/9/2016)
Giving more detail, he said:
“so we will decide on our borders, our laws and the taxpayer’s money. It means getting the best deal for Britain: one that is unique to Britain and not an off-the-shelf solution. This must mean controls on the numbers of people who come to Britain from Europe, but also a positive outcome for those who wish to trade in goods and services.”
He talked about new opportunities:
Brexit is not about making the best of a bad job; it is about seizing a huge and exciting opportunity that will flow from a new place for Britain in the world. There will be new freedoms, new opportunities and new horizons for our country.
The future relationship with Europe was specified:
“I want to be clear to our European friends and allies that we do not see Brexit as ending our relationship with Europe … we will work hard to help to establish a future relationship between the EU and the UK that is dynamic, constructive and healthy. We want a steadfast and successful European Union after we depart.”
He outlined four principles of Brexit:
- a national concensus
- national interests first
- minimise uncertainty
- return sovereignty to Parliament
15th August 2016
The delay in triggering article 50 could be until Autumn 2017 according to government sources. This is due to a lack of insfrastructure, especially negotiators who have the expertise to carry out the complex negotiations with the EU.
“They say they don’t even know the right questions to ask when they finally begin bargaining with Europe,” the source said. (The Indepedent)
Downing Street has declined to say when article 50 will be triggered. (BBC)
Meanwhile, the process of triggering article 50 is being considered by the UK supreme court. It will decide soon whether the article must be triggered by a vote in parliament or whether the Prime Minister alone can trigger it.
27th July 2016
The British government could only ensure the protection of European citizens living in the UK if British citizens were afforded the same rights in other EU states, Theresa May has said in the presence of the Italian prime minister. (The Guardian)
Custom’s Union: On Wednesday, Liam Fox, the international trade secretary said:
He added that London would probably seek to enter a free-trade agreement with the EU, rather than a closer “customs union” that could restrict its ability to negotiate lower tariffs with other trading partners. (The Guardian)
However Downing Street later denied that any such decision has been made:
Downing Street has slapped down Liam Fox… for suggesting that the UK should leave the EU’s customs union… Number 10 is adamant that no such decision has been taken. (The Independent)
Sunday 24th July 2016
Patrick McLoughlin (PM) on the Andrew Marr (AM) show:
PM: well Brexit means that we're coming out of the European Union er we want to see our own borders under our control and we we obviously want to see the best we can for British investment ... AM: a lot of the 17 million people who voted for Brexit assumed it would mean an end to mass migration from Europe (.) will it PM: well I think you can't say that the 17 million people who voted I think there were several reasons why people voted to er leave the European Union er so I don't think you can say it is one particular area but it does mean that we have to have control of our borders yes AM: so there wil be- you are going to bring er immigration from the EU down considerably absolutely definitely and in short order PM: yes (.) well you say short order ...
20th July 2016
Theresa May outlines in a little more details some of the principles of Brexit means Brexit. It seems to include (1) controls of free movement (2) best deal for trade. Nothing too controversial here.
TM: and can I assure him that as we (.) look at er the result of the referendum I’m very clear breixt does mean brexit as he says (.) we will make a success of it er what we need to do (.) in negotiating the er deal is to ensure that we listen to what people have said about the need for controls on free movement but we also negotiate (.) the right deal and the best deal of er trade in goods and services for the British people
Meeting with Angela Merkel, Theresa May said:
“It’s very clear to me that one of the messages that the British gave in their vote that the UK should leave the European Union is they wanted control brought into movement of people from the European Union … and so that of course will be one of the issues we will be looking at and we as a government will deliver on for people,” (Quote from The Guardian)
19th July 2016
According to the Guardian:
Theresa May does not intend to trigger article 50 of the Lisbon treaty initiating the UK’s departure from the European Union before the end of 2016, the high court has been told.
17th July 2016
Theresa May visits Wales and says ‘she wants the Welsh Government to be “involved and engaged” in Brexit talks.’ (BBC)
16th July 2016
Nicola Sturgeon, the First Minister for Scotland says Scotland is in a strong position to block Brexit following her meeting with Theresa May and subsequent comments. (The Independent)
15th July 2016
Theresa May meets with Nicola Sturgeon, Scotland’s First Minister. May assures Sturgeon ‘that she will not trigger article 50 until a “UK-wide approach” has been agreed for negotiations to leave the European Union’. May says:
“I won’t be triggering article 50 until I think that we have a UK approach and objectives for negotiations – I think it is important that we establish that before we trigger article 50.” (The Guardian)
This suggests the terms of Brexit have not been fully established in May’s mind and could delay Brexit indefinitely if Scotland puts up barriers.
14th July 2016
Philip Hammond, the new Chancellor of the Exchequer, on BBC radio:
... a new phase in the story of the British economy with the decision to leave the European Union
13th July 2016
Theresa May again uses the slogan ‘Brexit means Brexit’ in her speech outside No. 10 just minutes after the Queen invited her to form a new government. No extra information on what it means is given.
13th July 2016
Channel 4 news suggests the sentence could mean ‘some kind of revolt against the elite’.
11th July 2016
Theresa May has just won the Conservative party leadership contest and in her accession speech uses the slogan Brexit means Brexit (although she does not expand on what this means). May campaigned to remain in the EU during the referendum and many Brexiters are suspicious that the slogan could be a vacuous statement. In a subsequent interview, she does qualify the statement with ‘we have to leave the EU’.